A Description of Self Stigma Incidence in Post COVID-19 Patients in Kaliwates District Jember Regency

  • Sekar Ayu Widowati Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Jember, Indonesia
  • Erti Ikhtiarini Dewi Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Jember, Indonesia
  • Enggal Hadi Kurniyawan Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Jember, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9946-976X
  • Jon Hafan Sutawardana Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Jember, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5059-6821
  • Yeni Fitria Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Jember, Indonesia
Keywords: Post COVID-19 Patients, Self-Stigma, COVID-19


The condition of the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the emergence of feelings of anxiety, distress, and stress. One of the impacts of COVID-19 on mental health is the emergence of self-stigma in patients who have recovered from COVID-19. Self-stigma can give rise to negative attitudes in themselves over their condition. This study is aimed to describe the self-stigma incidence in post-COVID-19 patients in Kaliwates Subdistrict. This research design was descriptive quantitative with 86 post-COVID-19 patient respondents domiciled in Kaliwates Subdistrict determined by purposive sampling technique. Data collection was conducted by the Self Stigma Scale (SSS) questionnaire. The results showed that the median value of self-stigma was 30.50 with a minimum value of 0 and a maximum value of 56. A total of 14 people had a total score of 0 which means that 14 respondents (16%) did not experience self-stigma, while 72 others (84%) felt the existence of self-stigma with a different total score. This research is important to detect self-stigma to support the recovery process of post- COVID-19 patients. Nurses are expected to be able to carry out the further follow-up, act as counselors and provide interventions such as cognitive therapy for post-covid-19 patients who experience self-stigma.


Abudi, R., Mokodompis, Y., Magulili, A. N. (2020). Stigma Terhadap Orang Positif Covid-19 (Stigma Against Positive People Covid-19). Jambura Journal of Health Sciences and Research, 2(2), 77–84.

Adisiwi, Y. ulfia, Aini Susumaningrum, L., Susanto, T., Rasni, H., Kurdi, F., Dewi Qudsyiyah, R., & Nasikhin, K. (2021). The Description of Quality of Life of Elderly During the Pandemic COVID-19 at Nursing Home of Bondowoso. Nursing and Health Sciences Journal (NHSJ), 1(3), 231-236. https://doi.org/10.53713/nhs.v1i3.76

Asmaningrum, N., Manurung, A. A., & Kurniawan, D. E. (2021). Psychosocial Problems among Nurses in Patient’s Care of COVID-19: A Literature Review. Nursing and Health Sciences Journal (NHSJ), 1(2), 164-172. https://doi.org/10.53713/nhs.v1i2.40

Balachandar, V., Iyer Mahalaxmi., Mohandevi S., et al. (2020). Follow-up studies in COVID-19 recovered patients - is it mandatory? Science of the Total Environment 729 (2020) 139021.

Bruns, D. P., Kraguljac, N. V., & Bruns, T. R. 2020. COVID-19: Facts, cultural considerations, and risk of stigmatization. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 31(4), 326–332

Cheng, H.-L., Wang, C., McDermott, R. C., Kridel, M., & Rislin, J. L. (2018). Self-Stigma, Mental Health Literacy, and Attitudes Toward Seeking Psychological Help. Journal of Counseling & Development, 96(1), 64–74.

Corrigan, P.W., Rao, D. (2012). On the Self-Stigma of Mental Illness: Stages, Disclosure, And Strategies for Change. Nih Public Access. Can J Psychiatry, 57(8); 464-469

Dewedar, A.E-S., El-Menem, et al. (2018). Relationship Between Insight, Self Stigma, and Level of Hope Among Patients with Schizophrenia. Journal of Nursing and Health Science, 7(5); 15-24.

Fitriani, N. I. (2020). Tinjauan Pustaka Covid-19: Virologi, Patogenesis, Dan Manifestasi Klinis. Journal Of Chemical Information and Modeling, 4(3), 194–201.

Grover, S., Sahoo, S., Mishra, E., Gill, K.S., Mehra, A., Nehra, R., Suman, A., Bhalla, A., & Puri, G.D. (2021). Fatigue, Perceived Stigma, self-reported cognitive deficits, and psychological morbidity in patients recovered from COVID-19 infection. Asian Journal of Psychiatry (2021).

Handayani, et al. (2020). Corona Virus Disease 2019. Jurnal Respirologi Indonesia, 40(2).

Hansson, L et al. (2017). The effectiveness of narrative enhancement and cognitive therapy: a randomized controlled study of a self-stigmaa intervention. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 52(11); 1415-1423.

Islam, M.F., Joseph, C., & Leonard, A.J. (2020). Post-viral fatigue and COVID-19: lessons from past epidemics, Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior, 8(2), 61-69

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. (2020). Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Nomor HK.01.07/Menkes/413/2020 tentang Pedoman Pencegahan dan Pengendalian Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19)

Kendler, K.S., Kuhn, J., & Prescott, C.A. (2004). The interrelationship of neuroticism, sex, and stressful life events in the prediction of episodes of major depression. Am J Psychiatry, 161(4):631-6.

Latalova, K., Kamaradova, D., & Prasko, J. (2014). Perspectives on Perceived Stigma and Self-Stigma in Adult Male Patients with Depression. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 1399.

Livana, L.S., & Ike, S. (2020). Stigma Dan Perilaku Masyarakat Pada Pasien Positif Covid-19. Jurnal Gawat Darurat, 2(2), 95-100

Lutcmaningsih, D.D., Melissa P.K., et al. (2021). A Clinic Blueprint for Post-Coronavirus Disease 2019 RECOVERY Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future. Chest Infections Journal. March 2021

Mackenzie, C. S., Gekoski, W. L., & Knox, V. J. (2006). Age, gender, and the underutilization of mental health services: The influence of help-seeking attitudes. Aging & Mental Health, 10, 574–582.

Mahase, E. (2020). Covid-19: What do we know about "long covid”?. BMJ, 370,2815

Mahmoudi, H, Saffari, M, Movahedi, M, et al. (2021). A mediating role for mental health in associations between COVID-19-related self-stigma, PTSD, quality of life, and insomnia among patients recovered from COVID-19. Brain Behavior, 11, e02138.

Mak, W. W. S., & Wu, C. F. M. (2006). Cognitive Insight and Causal Attribution in The Development of Self Stigma Among Individuals With Schizophrenia. Psychiatric Services, 57(12), 1800-1802.

Matla, Salma dan Nunung Nurwati. (2020). Analisis Pengaruh Tingkat Kematian Akibat Covid-19 Terhadap Kesehatan Mental Masyarakat Di Indonesia. Jurnal Pekerjaan Sosial Vol. 3 No: 1. ISSN: 2620-3367 Hal: 16 - 28 Juli 2020

Mazza, M. G., De Lorenzo, R., Conte, C., Poletti, S., Vai, B., Bollettini, I., Melloni, E. M. T., Furlan, R., Ciceri, F., & Rovere-Querini, P. (2020). Anxiety and Depression in COVID-19 Survivors: Role of Inflammatory and Clinical Predictors. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 89, 594–600.

McEwen, MM, Baird, M, Pasvogel, A, & Gallegos, G. (2007). Health-illness transition experiences among Mexican immigrant women with diabetes. Fam Community Health, 30(3), 201-12

Oakley, Linda Denise., Jonathan W. Kanter, Janette Y. Taylor, Marilyn Duguid. (2011). The self-stigma of depression for women. International Journal of Social Psychiatry 58(5) 512–520.

Pachankis, J.E. (2007). The Psychological Implications of Concealing a Sigma: A Cognitive Affective Behavioral Model. Psychological Buletin, 133(2), 328-345

Putri, N.A., Putra, A.E., & Mariko, R. (2021). Hubungan Usia, Jenis Kelamin Dan Gejala Dengan Kejadian COVID-19 di Sumatera Barat. Majalah Kedokteran Andalas, 44(2), 104-111.

Rahmatina, Z., Nugrahaningrum, G. A., Wijayaningsih, A., & Yuwono, S. (2021). Social support for families tested positive for Covid-19: dukungan sosial pada keluarga yang divonis positif Covid-19. Proceding of Inter-Islamic University Conference on Psychology, 1(1).

Rangel, J. C., Ranade, S., Sutcliffe, P., Mykhalovskiy, E., Gastaldo, D., & Eakin, J. (2020). COVID-19 policy measures-advocating for the inclusion of the social determinants of health in modeling and decision making. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 26(4), 1078–1080.

Suryani, E. T. (2016). Self Picture Stigma of People with HIV AIDS in Polyclinic Cendana Ngudi Waluyo Wlingi Hospital. Jurnal Ners Dan Kebidanan (Journal of Ners and Midwifery), 3(3), 213–217.

Susilo A, Rumende CM, Pitoyo CW, et al. (2020). Coronavirus Disease 2019: Tinjauan Literatur Terkini. J Penyakit Dalam Indones, 7, 45-77

Tingey, J. L., Bentley, J. A., & Hosey, M. M. (2020). COVID-19: Understanding and mitigating trauma in ICU survivors. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(S1), S100-S104

Turner-Musa, J., Ajayi, O., & Kemp, L. (2020). Examining social determinants of health, stigma, and COVID-19 disparities. Healthcare (Basel), 8(2), 168.

Vermonte, Philips., Teguh Yudo Wicaksono. (2020). Karakteristik dan Persebaran COVID-19 di Indonesia: Temuan Awal. CSIS Commentaries DMRU-043-ID

Vogel, David L., et al. (2013). Is Stigma Internalized? The Longitudinal Impact of public Stigma on Self-Stigma. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(2), 311-316.

WHO. (2020). What we know about Long-term effects of COVID-19. World Health Organization

Xu, X., Sheng, Y., Khoshnood, K., & Clark, K. (2016). Factor Predictor Internalized Stigma Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Living with HIV in Beijing, China. Journal of The Association of Nurse in AIDS Care, 28(1): 142-153.

Zainuri, A., Sulistyono, R.E, Maisyaroh, A., & Rahmawati, P, M. (2022). Impact of The Covid-19 Pandemic on The Psychological Response of Adolescents: A Literature Review. Nursing and Health Sciences Journal (NHSJ), 2(1), 10-19. https://doi.org/10.53713/nhs.v2i2.81

Zhang, H., Hook, J. N., Hodge, A. S., Coomes, S. P., Davis, C. W., Karwoski, L. T., & Aten, J. D. (2020). The Effect of Spiritual Fortitude on Mental Health Symptoms Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 39(4), 288-300.

How to Cite
Ayu Widowati S, Ikhtiarini Dewi E, Hadi Kurniyawan E, Hafan Sutawardana J, Fitria Y. A Description of Self Stigma Incidence in Post COVID-19 Patients in Kaliwates District Jember Regency. NHSJ [Internet]. 2022Sep.1 [cited 2023Oct.2];2(3):215-23. Available from: http://nhs-journal.com/index.php/nhs/article/view/106