Literature Review Study: Factors Affecting Caring Performance in Low Birth Weight (LBW) Infants

  • Ira Rahmawati Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Jember, Indonesia
  • Iis Rahmawati Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Jember, Indonesia
  • Muhammad Alfarizi Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Jember, Indonesia
Keywords: low birth weight, caring performance, factors affecting


Globally, neonatal deaths are caused by LBW during home care. Complex LBW care when returning home requires parental knowledge and skills in understanding the baby's condition. Good care performance is required by parents and controlling factors that influence treatment at home. This study aimed to identify the factors that influence caring performance in LBW. The study using a literature review narrative design with 4 stages of selection based on the PRISMA diagram. Articles were searched using the search engines PubMed, SpringerLink, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar with Indonesian and English keywords. From the results of the review, 11 articles were obtained which contained factors that influence caring performance during home care. From the analysis of all articles, it was found that there were 4 factors that influenced caring performance, namely maternal factors, sociodemographic factors, external factors, and cultural factors. The factor that has the most influence on caring performance is the mother's factor. Special interventions are needed for mothers to improve skills in LBW care at home to reduce neonatal mortality.


Abbas , F., Kumar, R., Mahmood, T., & Somrongthong, R. (2021). Impact of children born with low birth weight on stunting and wasting in Sindh province of Pakistan: a propensity score matching approach. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1–10.

Alemu, A., Abageda, M., Assefa, B., & Melaku, G. (2019). Low birth weight: Prevalence and associated factors among newborns at hospitals in kambata-tembaro zone, southern Ethiopia 2018. Pan African Medical Journal, 34, 1–8.

Amelia, T., Pratomo, H., Adisasmita, A. C., Martha, E., Rustina, Y., Murty, A. I., Susilowati, I. H., Tambunan, E. S., & Hasanah, I. J. (2021). Feasibility of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) Implementation in Depok City, Indonesia. Global Pediatric Health, 8.

Asadian, S., Talakub, S., Sadeghnia, A., & Golchin, M. (2019). Effect of Development-based Care Programs by Mothers on Growth Indices of Infants with Low Birth Weight. Iranian Journal of Neonatology, 10(3), 81–87.

Astuti, E. S., Nursalam, N., Devy, S. R., & Etika, R. (2019a). Knowledge, Family Support and Self-Reliance Capital when Caring for Low Birth Weight Babies. Jurnal Ners, 14(1), 10–15.

Astuti, E. S., Nursalam, N., Devy, S. R., & Etika, R. (2019c). Mother’s independence model within caring for low birth weight babies at home after hospital care based on mother factors, family support, and social support. Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development, 10(10), 1685–1690.

Bilal, S., Tadele, H., … T. A.-B., & 2021, undefined. (n.d.). Barriers for kangaroo mother care (KMC) acceptance, and practices in southern Ethiopia: a model for scaling up uptake and adherence using qualitative study. Bmcpregnancychildbirth …. Retrieved April 27, 2023, from

Blanchard, A. K., Prost, A., & Houweling, T. A. J. (2019). Effects of community health worker interventions on socioeconomic inequities in maternal and newborn health in low-income and middle-income countries: A mixed-methods systematic review. BMJ Global Health, 4(3), 1–11.

Borde, M. T., Loha, E., Johansson, K. A., & Lindtjørn, B. (2020). Financial risk of seeking maternal and neonatal healthcare in southern Ethiopia: A cohort study of rural households. International Journal for Equity in Health, 19(1), 1–16.

Dargahiyan, Z., Ghasemi, F., Karami, K., Valizadeh, F., & Mohammadi, R. (2023). A comparative study of the effects of Kangaroo care by mothers and maternal grandmothers on the vital signs of hospitalized preterm newborns: a randomized controlled clinical trial study. Trials, 24(1), 275.

Fasawe, O., Adekeye, O., Carmone, A. E., Dahunsi, O., Kalaris, K., Storey, A., Ubani, O., & Wiwa, O. (2020). Applying a Client-centered Approach to Maternal and Neonatal Networks of Care: Case Studies from Urban and Rural Nigeria. Health Systems and Reform, 6(2).

Gee, S., Vargas, J., & Foster, A. M. (2019). “The more children you have, the more praise you get from the community”: Exploring the role of sociocultural context and perceptions of care on maternal and newborn health among Somali refugees in UNHCR supported camps in Kenya. Conflict and Health, 13(1), 1–10.

Harries, V., & Brown, A. (2019). The association between use of infant parenting books that promote strict routines, and maternal depression, self-efficacy, and parenting confidence. Early Child Development and Care, 189(8), 1339–1350.

Humaira, B., & Rifdi, F. (2019). Analisis Kecemasan Ibu Dengan Perawatan Bayi Bblrdi Rumah Sakitdr Ahmad Muchtar Bukittinggitahun 2018. Maternal Child Health Care, 1(2), 76.

Jana, A., Saha, U. R., Reshmi, R. S., & Muhammad, T. (2023). Relationship between low birth weight and infant mortality: evidence from National Family Health Survey 2019-21, India. Archives of Public Health, 81(1).

Khan, N., Mozumdar, A., & Kaur, S. (2020). Determinants of low birth weight in India: An investigation from the National Family Health Survey. American Journal of Human Biology, 32(3).

Koenraads, M., Phuka, J., Maleta, K., Theobald, S., & Gladstone, M. (2017). Understanding the challenges to caring for low birthweight babies in rural southern Malawi: A qualitative study exploring caregiver and health worker perceptions and experiences. BMJ Global Health, 2(3), 1–8.

Lee, J., Kang, J. C., & Ji, E. S. (2019). Experiences of Mothers’ Attachment in a Follow-Up Program Using Early Intervention for Low-Birth-Weight Infants. Asian Nursing Research, 13(3), 177–183.

Lima, S. A. M., El Dib, R. P., Rodrigues, M. R. K., Ferraz, G. A. R., Molina, A. C., Neto, C. A. P., De Lima, M. A. F., & Rudge, M. V. C. (2018). Is the risk of low birth weight or preterm labor greater when maternal stress is experienced during pregnancy? A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. PLoS ONE, 13(7), 1–15.

Lubis, R. M. (2021). Mother’s Behavior In Caring For Low Birth Weight Babies (LBW) At Home. Journal of Midwifery and Nursing, 3(3), 93–97.

Lydon, M. M., Lwesha, V., Likomwa, D., Chimtembo, L., Guenther, T., & Longwe, M. (2022). Re-envisioning Kangaroo Mother Care Implementation Through a Socioecological Model: Lessons From Malawi. Global Health, Science and Practice, 10(4).

Media, Y. (2016). Permasalahan Sosial Budaya Dalam Upaya Penurunan Angka Kematian Bayi Di Provinsi Sumatera Barat. Jurnal Ekologi Kesehatan, 16(1), 46–56.

Merdikawati, A., Astari, A. M., Choiriyah, M., Evi, N., Yuliatun, L., Amaliya, S., Fitri, A. A., & Raehana, N. U. (2021). Optimalisasi Dukungan Keluarga Dalam Perawatan Bayi Berat Badan Lahir Rendah (BBLR) Di Rumah. Caring Jurnal Pengabdian Masyarakat, 1(1), 40–48.

Mohammadi, M. M., & Poursaberi, R. (2018). The Effect of Stress Inoculation Training on Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy and Perceived Stress of Mothers With Low Birth Weight Infants: A Clinical Trial. Journal of Family & Reproductive Health, 12(3), 160–168.

Ningsih, W. S., & Setiawan, S. (2018). Pengalaman Ibu Usia Remaja Dalam Merawat Bayi Berat Lahir Rendah (BBLR) Di Kota Medan: Studi Fenomenologis. Talenta Conference Series: Tropical Medicine (TM), 1(1), 53–58.

Nisha, M. K., Raynes-Greenow, C., Rahman, A., & Alam, A. (2019). Perceptions and practices related to birthweight in rural Bangladesh: Implications for neonatal health programs in low- And middle-income settings. PLoS ONE, 14(12), 1–16.

Schuler, C., Ntow, G. E., & Agbozo, F. (2019). Mothers’ Experiences with Neonatal Care for Low Birth Weight Infants at Home; A Qualitative Study in the Hohoe Municipality, Ghana. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 45(xxxx), e44–e52.

Serlachius, A., Hames, J., Juth, V., Garton, D., Rowley, S., & Petrie, K. J. (2018). Parental experiences of family-centred care from admission to discharge in the neonatal intensive care unit. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 54(11), 1227–1233.

Silveira, R. C., Mendes, E. W., Fuentefria, R. N., Valentini, N. C., & Procianoy, R. S. (2018). Early intervention program for very low birth weight preterm infants and their parents: A study protocol. BMC Pediatrics, 18(1), 1–11.

Sinha, B., Taneja, S., Chowdhury, R., Mazumder, S., Rongsen-Chandola, T., Upadhyay, R. P., Martines, J., Bhandari, N., & Bhan, M. K. (2018). Low-birthweight infants born to short-stature mothers are at additional risk of stunting and poor growth velocity: Evidence from secondary data analyses. Maternal and Child Nutrition, 14(1), 1–9.

Srivastava, A., Saxena, S., Srivastava, P., Mahmood, S. E., Pandey, R., & Saxena, A. (2022). Newborn thermal care in western Uttar Pradesh — gap analysis between knowledge and practices. Archives of Public Health, 80(1).

Tambunan, E. S., Pratomo, H., Hadi, E. N., & Rustina, Y. (2020). Knowledge of low birth weight care as a source of coping strategies for mothers: Cross sectional study in perinatology WARD’S. Journal of Neonatal Nursing, 26(5), 268–272.

Tomoyasu, Y., & Sobue, I. (2019). Problems with Home Care of Low-birth-weight Infants: “Use of Little Baby Handbook” to Support Low-birth-weight Infants and Families (Mothers). Journal of Comprehensive Nursing Research and Care, 4(1), 1–5.

Umberger, E., Canvasser, J., & Hall, S. L. (2018). Enhancing NICU parent engagement and empowerment. Seminars in Pediatric Surgery, 27(1), 19–24.

Wachamo, T. M., Yimer, N. B., & Bizuneh, A. D. (2019). Risk factors for low birth weight in hospitals of North Wello zone, Ethiopia: A case-control study. PLoS ONE, 14(3), 1–15.

WHO and UNICEF. (2021). Ghana: WHO and UNICEF estimates of immunization coverage: 2020 revision. WHO Reports, July, 1–22.

Yang-Huang, J., van Grieken, A., You, Y., Jaddoe, V. W. V., Steegers, E. A., Duijts, L., Boelens, M., Jansen, W., & Raat, H. (2021). Changes in family poverty status and child health. Pediatrics, 147(4).

How to Cite
Ira Rahmawati, Rahmawati I, Alfarizi M. Literature Review Study: Factors Affecting Caring Performance in Low Birth Weight (LBW) Infants. NHSJ [Internet]. 2024May31 [cited 2024Jun.25];4(2):218-26. Available from: